The citation style of the American Modern Language Association (MLA style) is frequently used in Humanities, for instance in Linguistics and Literature Studies.
On the website of the Modern Language Association you will find a guide to practise citing in the MLA style.
The Purdue PWL MLA help guide is useful if you use the Modern Language Association style (MLA-style).
In the boxes below you will find some examples of references in the MLA style.
For more information go to the MLA quick guide at the website of the Modern Language Association.
Book by one author:
Last name, first name. Title: Subtitle. Publisher, year of publication.
Jameson, Fredric. The Cultural Turn: Selected Writings on Postmodernism 1983-1998. Verso,1998.
Please make sure you put the last name of the author first. That is useful, because in the actual text of your essay you refer to a source by including the last name of the author and the page number. When your reader checks the reading list at the end it is easy to retrace the source by searching for the last name.
Book by more than one author
Last name, first name, and first name last name. Title: Subtitle. Publisher, year of publication.
Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. Empire. Harvard University Press, 2000.
Do not change the order of the author's names. Please note: only the name of the first author starts with the last name. If there are more than two authors, only mention the first author, followed by "et al." You can leave out the other authors ) "et alli" means "and others".)
The edited volume itself:
Last name, first name, editor. Title: Subtitle. Publisher, year of publication.
Docherty, Thomas, editor. Postmodernism: A Reader. Columbia University Press, 1993.
Article in an edited volume:
Last name, first name. “Title of the article.” Title of the book: Subtitle of the book, edited by first name last name of the compiler of the book. Publisher, year of publication, pp. first and last page of the article.
Gorz, André. “The Conditions of Post-Marxist Man.” Postmodernism: A Reader, edited by Thomas Docherty. Columbia University Press, 1993, pp. 344-354.
N.B.: The title of the article is not in italics, but put between brackets. The title of the edited volume itself is in italics.
Last name, first name. “Title of the article.” Journal titlle, volume, issue, year of publication, pp. first and last page.
Stanford Friedman, Susan. “Definitional Excursions: The Meanings of Modern/Modernity/Modernism.” Modernism / Modernity, vol. 8, no. 3, 2001, pp. 493-513.
Last name, first name. “Title of the article.” Title of the newspaper or magazine, day, month, year, first and last page.
Shaviro, Steven. “Post-Cinematic Affect: On Grace Jones, Boarding Gate, and Southland Tales.” Film-Philosophy, vol. 14, no. 1, 2010, pp. 1-102, www.film-philosophy.com/index.php/f-p/article/viewArticle/220. Accessed 2 August 2010.
Last name, first name. “Title of he article.” Title of the newspaper or magazine, day, month, year, first and last page.
Pole, Steven. “Big Fish, Little Fish.” New Statesman, 5 March 2007, pp. 57-58.
Last name, first name. “Title of the page.” Title of the Website, publication date of the website (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date on which the website was last visited by you.
Blooijs, Joost de. “Tiqqun. Een weerwoord.” nY Web, 5 mei 2010, www.ny-web.be/showtime/tiqqun-een-weerwoord.html. Accessed 2 August 2010.
When you cite a page on a website or an online newspaper, start with the author if you know the name. Next the name of the website or online newspaper.
Last name, first name or nickname of the blogger. “Title of the post.” Name of the Website, publlication date, URL, DOI or permalink. Date on which the website was last visited by you.
Dean, Jodi. “Complexity (not worth the effort).” I Cite, 7 July 2010, jdeanicite.typepad.com/i_cite/2010/07/complexity-not-worth-the-effort.html. Accessed 2 August 2010.
Characteristics of the MLA citation style: