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Universiteitsbibliotheek – LibGuides

Citing: Chicago style

About the Chicago style

The ChicagoStyle has two citation versions: the Notes & Bibliography style and the Author-Date style (last name and year of publication). Which one you choose depends on the subject and the sources you have used.

The Humanities (including Literature, History and the Arts) prefer the Notes & Bibliography style. In this system numbered footnotes or endnotes refer to the used sources. Each note corresponds with a superscript number in the text. Sources are usually listed in a separate reading list.

The concise Author-Date system is used in the Natural Sciences and the Social Sciences. In this system the sources are briefly represented in the text by last name of the author and year of publication in brackets. In the reading list the full bibliographic details are given.

See also the Chicago Manual of Style (e-book in the library collection).

Examples of references in Chicago style

In the boxes below you will find some examples of references in the Chicago style.

For a complete overview go to the Chicago Manual of Style (e-book in the library collection) or the Turabian Manual of Style

Find out which style must be used in your study programme.

Journal articles

In the reading list (in alphabetical order) you include the paging of the entire article, in the reference in the text you put the page(s) of the quote. In the case of online articles also give the URL or preferably (if present) the DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI is a sustainable URL that starts with https://doi.org/.

Journal articles often have more than one author. If there are up to ten authors you mention them all in your reading list, in the reference in the text you only give the name of the first author, followed by et al. ( "and others"). In the case of more than ten authors you only mention the first seven in your reading list, followed by et al.

Author-date style

In the reading list ( in alphabetical order):

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.”New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.

References in the text:
(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)
(LaSalle 2017, 95)

Notes & bibliography style

Notes:

1. Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
2. LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.”New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Shortened notes

3. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.
4. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.

Books

In the case of online books (ebooks), give the URL in the reading list.

Author-date style

In the reading list (in alphabetical order): 

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.

References in the text:

(Grazer and Fishman 2015, 12)
(Smith 2016, 315–16)
(Kurland and Lerner 1987, chap. 10)

Notes & bibliography style

Notes:
1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.
2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

Shortened notes:
3. Smith, Swing Time, 320.
4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.

Book chapter

Author-date style

In the reading list (in alphabetical order) you include the paging of the chapter, in the reference in the text you mention the page(s) of the quote.

Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

Reference in the text:

(Thoreau 2016, 177–78)

Notes & bibliography style

Note:
1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.

Shortened note:
2. Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.

Other kinds of sources

Do you want to see more examples or get more information about, for instance, referring to doctoral theses, interviews, websites and social media sources? Please consult the Chicago Manual of Style.

Chicago and Turabian almost identical

The Chicago style and the Turabian style are almost identical. The difference lies mainly in the numbering of the notes.

The Turabian style uses superscript 1 for endnotes and footnote numbers, both in the text and in front of each note.

In the Chicago style the number is put in front of the notes in the text between brackets (1). in the list of endnotes the number is followed by a full stop and interspacing.

Example:

1. Chicago
1Turabian

See also the Turabian Manual of Style.

Cultural Anthropology

Cultural Anthropology follows the American Anthropological Association (AAA) and so uses the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (Author-Date style).