When you make use of legislation, case law or literature in an academic paper you acknowledge this by including references. References are recorded uniformly. This is important, as it enables all readers to understand the reference swiftly and ensures that if they wish they can look up the sources themselves without having to perform any unnecessary detective work.
In this course the preferred referencing style is Oscola (4th ed, 2012). It is a footnote based style.
However, Oscola 4th ed. does not cover International Law. Consult the Oscola 2006 section Citing International Law Sources Section.
However, some documents have an official mode of citation, for instance the judgments and decisions of the ICJ and of the European Court of Human Rights:
In principle, always refer to the printed, official version of the ICJ Reports. On the ICJ website you can find the official citation of the ICJ Reports: I.C.J. Reports, with an indication of the year, e.g. Application of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995 (the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia v. Greece), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2011 (II), p. 644.
The mode of citation depends, among other things, on the year. A very short summary can be found in Oscola 4th ed. (p. 31). A more extensive explanation can be found on the ECHR website: Note explaining the mode of citation and how to refer to the judgments and decisions of the Court (old and new)
If you want to record a document from the internet (book, journal article, case law, website etc) we recommend you to use a long-lasting or permanent hyperlink, for instance the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or 'permalink' or 'deeplink' or 'stable url' or indicated by an icon such as or or .
Never use hyperlinks from searches. They often involve a (search) session code. Once you finish your search session, the hyperlink does no longer work!
Academic integrity and honesty is an important demand that the academic community imposes on its members. Integrity is crucial in several scientific activities and on different moments:
In research and publishing:
Scientists feel an increasing pressure from society to stick to these rules. Being fully independent or at least the indicating clearly any competing interest and interests of third parties is crucial to the credibility and use of scientific findings. These rules of conduct apply to all members of the scientific community, including students.
There are also various codes of conduct to which researchers and students must abide. You can find these at: