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Universiteitsbibliotheek – LibGuides

Media Studies: Citation

Doing a Literature Review

Cite your sources

Academic standards require that you cite the sources you have used in doing your research:

  1. To make your research reproducable
  2. To acknowledge the work of others
  3. To connect your work to other scholars and increase your credibility.

A Citation Style defines how you should refer to your sources in a research paper. The preferred style for Media Studies is the Chicago Style.

More on citing your sources and composing a bibliography can be read in the Handleiding Academische vaardigheden 2.0 (in Dutch).

Chicago Style for citing and referencing

A Citation Style defines how you should refer to your sources in a research paper. The Chicago Style can be used both with citations in footnotes or endnotes and with in-text citations.

  • Notes allow for commentary on sources and unusual references and is preferred mainly in literature, history and the arts.
  • In-text citations, with a author-date reference in the text, are preferred mainly in the sciences and social sciences. 
  • Both notes and in-text citations should be combined with a bibliography containing the full title details


In-text citation:

As Bleeker (2001, 105) writes in her article on Beppie Blankert...


Beppie Blankert's performance of Double Track can be seen as .... (Bleeker 2001, 105)

and full title details in the bibliography / works cited:

Bleeker, Maaike. 2001. "Being Where? Managing the Attention of the Audience in Beppie Blanked's Double Track". Performance Research: A Journal of the Performing Arts 6 (3): 104-110.




Chicago Manual of Style Online

The Chicago Manual of Style Online is a guide for writing a research publication. It consists of three parts

  1. Information about the publishing process
  2. Advice on matters of style and usage (American English!)
  3. Guidelines on citations and the bibliography

Academic integrity

Academic integrity and honesty is an important demand that the academic community imposes on its members. Integrity is crucial in several scientific activities and on different moments:

In research:

  • Be open about your research objectives and share these with the human test subjects, interviewees and survey respondents
  • Protect personal/patients data extremely well
  • Obtain data in a legitimate way (so no fake data)

In research and publishing:

  • Mention external financiers or organisations that commissioned the research to third parties if they are asked for their cooperation: these external interests must also be mentioned in the publication.

In publishing:

  • Include references to the origin of your data. Acknowledge the creators if you use external data.
  • Include references to do justice to the work of others. All insights which are based directly on the work of others must be referred to in a publication, regardless of the form such as direct inspiration, paraphrases or verbatim citations
  • Only refer to sources which you have really read or seen. If a source is referred to the author must always have read or seen the original source. You cannot cite an original source on the basis of merely bibliographical data or mention in another source. At the most you can use indirect references like this "......, cited in....." but you weaken your case if you do this too often.
  • Only cite with respect to content, not because you want to help yourself or others, a journal or an organisation, to citations

In education:

  • Do justice to different scientific perspectives. A lecturer should not consciously withhold scientific viewpoints to students because he does not agree with them, or because they harm his personal or professional interests

Scientists feel an increasing pressure from society to stick to these rules. Being fully independent or at least the indicating clearly any competing interest and  interests of third parties is crucial to the credibility and use of scientific findings. These rules of conduct apply to all members of the scientific community, including students.

There are also various codes of conduct to which researchers and students must abide. You can find these at:

  • The Utrecht University list of codes (with among others the The Netherlands Code of Conduct for Academic Practice and the Code of Conduct for Scrupulous Academic Practice and Integrity)
  • Information on Fraud and Plagiarism at the UU student website
  • COPE: Code of conduct with rules for journal editors and publishers; these describe how editors should judge manuscripts. Many publishers have incorporated COPE into their practices.